References for Psychedelic Psychometrics Questionnaires


MEQ147 (Leary/Pahnke 1963)

Drugs and Mysticism: An Analysis of the Relationship between Psychedelic Drugs and the Mystical Consciousness
Harvard University Press
Walter Pahnke, June 1963 – Full text of Pahnke’s 1963 dissertation book, created from MAPS scans of the typed dissertation:

“Within a week all subjects had completed a 147-item questionnaire which had been designed to measure phenomena of the typology of mysticism on a qualitative, numerical scale.”

“Acknowledgments: The author wishes to express his deep gratitude for the support and encouragement of many members of the academic community who made this study possible in a troubled [why write ‘troubled’ in June 1963?] but promising area of research. Particular appreciation is extended to Dr. Hans Hofmann, who was a continuing source of counsel and inspiration, and to Dr. Timothy Leary, who assisted with the execution of the experiment. Through the guidance of the thesis committee [The Committee on Higher Degrees in History and Philosophy of Religion], the author’s perspectives have been clarified and deepened.”

Preface begins with a false dichotomy: “This dissertation was an empirical study designed to investigate the similarities and differences between experiences described by mystics and those induced by psychedelic (or mind-manifesting) drugs such as d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin, and mescaline.”

Did you go up to the mountaintop where God told you this given fact, that mystics didn’t use psychedelics?

How does everyone know so much, with so much certainty, about “the traditional, non-drug methods of the mystics”?

The dissertation book is a: Thesis presented to The Committee on Higher Degrees in History and Philosophy of Religion in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the subject of Religion and Society, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, June, 1963.

PDF version of that, 119 pages: – footer: “since 09.06.2015 at“

Scan of the book (prefer webpage/PDF above):

Drugs and mysticism: An analysis of the relationship between psychedelic drugs and the mystical consciousness
January 1, 1963
Walter Pahnke

“The Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ) was developed by Pahnke (1963, 1969) as a tool for the evaluation of single mystical experiences occasioned by hallucinogens. The MEQ is based on Stace’s conceptual framework (1960)…” – MacLean 2012, Factor Analysis of the Mystical Experience Questionnaire: A Study of Experiences Occasioned by the Hallucinogen Psilocybin
Book: Walter Stace, 1960: Mysticism and Philosophy.
When was SOCQ?

MEQ43 (Richards/Pahnke 1969)

Psychedelic drugs and mystical experience
Walter Pahnke
International Psychiatry Clinics.
PubMed: 4892137

The following is an instance of the MEQ43 questionnaire, lacking the SOCQ’s other, 57 distractor items. PDF includes categories and their items.
todo: move down to Griffiths MEQ43 2008 section.
Year: 2006 or later.
States of Consciousness Questionnaire [SOCQ] and Pahnke-Richards Mystical Experience Questionnaire [MEQ]
It lists 7 categories (like MEQ30) not 4 (like MEQ43), but it’s easy to understand why they’d do that, if they are going to present any categories; MEQ43 collapses 4 together into 1.

That PDF lists 43 items, per top of PDF:

  • Internal Unity (6 items)
  • External Unity (6 items)
  • Transcendence of Time and Space (8 items)
  • Ineffability and Paradoxicality (5 items)
  • Sense of Sacredness (7 items)
  • Noetic Quality (4 items)
  • Deeply-Felt Positive Mood (7 items)

That PDF says at bottom:
Source: RR Griffiths, WA Richards, U McCann, R Jesse2006. “Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance.” Psychopharmacology (Berl). 187(3), 268-83, commentaries 284-292. Available on the Council of Spiritual Practices’ Psilocybin Research page (pdf). – bottom has the grouped questions – but only the 43 MEQ questions, no trace of the 57 distractor questions, of which CEQ initial pool selected 24, omitting 33 (which I haven’t found yet).

Pahnke, W. N. Drugs and Mysticism. 
International Journal of Parapsychology 8, 295–314 (1966).

15-page article, 1967:
LSD and religious experience
Walter Pahnke
In: DeBold, RC.; Leaf, RC., editors:
LSD Man & Society
Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press; 1967. p. 60-85.

My page: (SOCQ seems ~2006)
SOCQ – “States of Consciousness Questionnaire”

MEQ43 (Richards 1975)

Counseling, peak experiences and the human encounter with death: An empirical study of the efficacy of DPT-assisted counseling in enhancing quality of life of persons with terminal cancer and their closest family members
William Richards
PhD diss. UCLA

Dissertation: Catholic University of America. 1975 Mar; 75(18):531.


APZ (Dittrich 1975)

Dittrich A (1975)
Zusammenstellung eines fragebogens (APZ) zur erfassung abnormer psychischer zustände
[Construction of a questionnaire (APZ) for assessing abnormal mental states]
Z Klin Psychol Psychiatr Psychother 23: 12–20.

APZ was made/published by Dittrich in 1975.

The 3 O/A/V dimensions of APZ were identified / published by Dittrich 1985.

v1 O + A + V = how many items? From memory:

= 49 items, but often the G-ASC’s etiology-indep. items are added:
+ 23
= 72 items (or 49 items) in the OAV of 1985/1993 for APZ 1975.

That led to creating/publishing an improved questionnaire called “OAV” in 1994, 66 items (simpler tallies b/c no etiology-dependent items).

Where did the 23 G-ASC items go? Hypoth: They were merged into the O/ A/ V dimensions to bloat them out.
taking Ocean from 13 to 27 in ’94,
taking Angst/Dread from 22 to 21 in ’94,
taking Ocean from 14 to 18 in ’94.

Maybe that is how the 72-item O/A/V 1985/1993 became the 66-item OAV 1994.

Hypothesis: Maybe the 158-72=86 etiology-dependent items of APZ were separated into the BETA questionnaire, which became dimension 4 & 5 later: Auditory, and Reduction of Vigilance.

O/A/V for APZ 1975 (Dittrich 1985)

International study on altered states of consciousness (ISASC): Summary of the results
Dittrich A, Vonarx S, Staub S
Ger J Psychol 9: 319–339.

Dittrich in 1985 presents the O, A, V, and probably G-ASC dimensions found in APZ[158]


O/A/V for APZ 1975 (Dittrich 1993/1994)

Dittrich A
Psychological aspects of altered states of consciousness of the LSD type: Measurement of their basic dimensions and prediction of individual differences
Pletscher A, Ladewig D, eds.
50 Years of LSD: Current Status and Perspectives of Hallucinogens: A Symposium of the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences,  Lugano-Agno (Switzerland) October 21 and 22, 1993
New York NY: Parthenon. pp 101–118.
Readable at Google Books:

I have this printed out (it was worth producing). As valuable as CEQ printout or 11-Factors.

This isn’t OAV 1994 (66 items). As Dittrich presents, this original version of OAV for the 1975 APZ has 72 items, 3-1/2 dimensions (O/A/V & G-ASC).

Dittrich 1994 (Oct. 1993) in book 50 Years of LSD

Swiss Academy of the Medical Sciences.
Proceedings of a Symposium of the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences, Lugano-Agno (Switzerland), October 21-22, 1993.
Pharmacological and clinical research on LSD, for pharmacologists or psychiatrists.
17 contributors, 5 U.S.



HRS Hallucinogen Rating Scale (Strassman 1994)

Strassman, R. J., Qualls, C. R., Uhlenhuth, E. H. & Kellner, R.
Dose-response study of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in humans.
II. Subjective effects and preliminary results of a new rating scale. 
Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 51, 98–108 (1994).

Bing Search:

Google Search:

OAV 1994 (Dittrich, 1994, German)

Bodmer I, Dittrich A, Lamparter D.
Aussergewöhnliche Bewusstseinszustände – Ihre gemeinsame Struktur und Messung
[Altered states of consciousness – Their common structure and assessment].
Hofmann A, Leuner H, editors. 
Welten des Bewusstseins. Bd. 3, Experimentelle Psychologie, Neurobiologie und Chemie.
Berlin, Germany: VWB; 1994. pp. 45–58.

This article is about Dittrich 1994 OAV with inflated O & V, shrunken A, in book Worlds of Consciousness, Volume 3 (German)
Ocean 13 -> 27
Angst/Dread 22 -> 21
Visionary 14 -> 18
G-ASC 23 -> no longer exists distinct from the now 66 O/A/V items.

Annual journal book that in 1994 defines OAV:
Worlds of Consciousness
Bodmer, I., Dittrich, A. & Lamparter, D. in Welten des Bewusstseins. Bd. 3 (eds. Hofmann, A. & Leuner, H.) 45–58 (Experimentelle Psychologie, Neurobiologie und Chemie., 1994).

Welten des Bewußtseins, Bd.3 –

Annual journal book that in 1994 defines OAV:
Worlds of Consciousness
Bodmer, I., Dittrich, A. & Lamparter, D. in Welten des Bewusstseins. Bd. 3 (eds. Hofmann, A. & Leuner, H.) 45–58 (Experimentelle Psychologie, Neurobiologie und Chemie., 1994).

Welten des Bewußtseins, Bd.3 –

OAV 1994 (Dittrich 1998)

Dittrich 1998 article about OAV questionnaire [66 items] with improved (tilted positive) OAV items compared to APZ [158 items]

Dittrich A (1998)
The standardized psychometric assessment of altered states of consciousness (ASCs) in humans
Pharmacopsychiatry 31: 80–84. – paywall for PDF fulltext


BETA (Dittrich ~1990)

5D-ASC’s Two Extra Dimensions, as a Separate “BETA” Questionnaire, Is Mentioned in 1998 Article

The BETA questionnaire measures the dimensions “Vigilance Reduction (VIR)” and “Auditive Alteration (AVE).

That 1998 mention of dimensions 4 & 5 (though as a separate, “BETA” questionnaire) corroborates Studerus’ 2010 claim that 5D-ASC data was gathered starting in 2000, not in 2006 when the 5D (German) article was published.

These dimensions are expected to be etiology-dependent. When people say APZ has 72 items in 3 main categories, they mean 158 items of APZ have 72 divided into:
13 Ocean
22 Angst
14 Dread
23 G-ASC that are etiology-independent.
72 TOTAL etiology-independent.
Source: Dittrich 1993 (1994), which I have printed out.

Hypothesis: the other 158-72=86 items (the etiology-dependent items of the 1975 APZ) became the BETA questionnaire around 1988, which then became the Auditory & Reduction of Vigilance dimensions #4 and #5 of the (private in 1999) (announced in 2006) 5D-ASC.

5D-ASC Intro (Dittrich 2006, German)

Dittrich, A, Lamparter, D, Maurer, M (2006) 5D-ABZ:
German garbled from pdf, see Studerus 2010: References. Try copying from the original in-browser version, instead of Adobe Acrobat.
Fragebogen zur Erfassung Aussergewo¨hnlicher Bewusstseinszusta¨nde. Eine kurze Einfu¨hrung
[5D-ASC: Questionnaire for the assessment of altered states of consciousness. A short introduction]. Zurich, Switzerland: PSIN PLUS.

Dittrich 2006 5D-ASC (German) Adding 2 Positive Dimensions to Reduce Negative from 1/3 to 1/5

Guidelines for Safety (Johnson 2008)

Human Hallucinogen Research: Guidelines for Safety
Johnson M, Richards W, Griffiths R.
Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22, 603-620.
22(6):603-20. doi: 10.1177/0269881108093587.
Epub 2008 Jul 1. PMID: 18593734; PMCID: PMC3056407.

Cybermonk’s Guidelines for Danger

5D-ASC Intro (Dittrich 2010)

5D-ASC: Questionnaire for the assessment of altered states of consciousness. A short introduction.
Dittrich, A, Lamparter, D, Maurer, M (2010)
Zurich, Switzerland: PSIN PLUS.

link (good luck finding) – Unobtanium. Library.

The {evil king} sent the {hero} to obtain the 5D-ASC Intro article by Dittrich, knowing that this impossible task, {impossible for any mortal} unless {assisted by magic tools from the gods} would lead to the hero’s {death} while trying to {get the treasure} that’s {guarded by the dragon}.





11-Factors for OAV 1994 (Studerus 2010)

Studerus 2010 article defining 11-Factor replacement of OAV:
Psychometric Evaluation of the Altered States of Consciousness Rating Scale (OAV)

Figure S1 “Hierarchical item clustering tree diagram” from Studerus 2010 lists all 66 OAV items:
this link might download a pdf rather than immediately displaying it in browser.

Figure S2 is similar. See the important captures where I trace question 54:

Page title:
Critique of Griffiths MEQ30 and other ME questionnaires (Brown Thread)
Section heading:
How Question #54 Eventually Moves Out from 11-Factors’ Anxiety Factor to Become a Direct Member of “Unpleasant” High-Level Category

SOCQ/MEQ43 (Griffiths 2006, 2008, 2011)

“In its most recent iteration, the MEQ was administered along with 57 distracter items in a 100-item instrument called the States of Consciousness Questionnaire (SOCQ) (Griffiths et al. 2006; Griffiths et al. 2008; Griffiths et al. 2011). Relevant to the present study, although the wording and number of distracter items have changed over the years, the mystical items have remained largely consistent since the inception of the MEQ (see Pahnke 1969).” – MacLean 2012

Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences (Griffiths 2006)

Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance
Griffiths, Roland R.; Richards, William A.; McCann, Una; Jesse, Robert.
Psychopharmacology. 2006; 187(3):268–83. [PubMed: 16826400]

Web search

Commentary by Charles Schuster

Spiritual significance 14 months later (Griffiths 2008)

Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later

Griffiths, Roland R.; Richards, William A.; Johnson, Matthew W.; McCann, Una D.; Jesse, Robert.
Journal of Psychopharmacology. 2008; 22(6):621–32.
[PubMed: 18593735]

Guidelines for Safety is also 2008.

Immediate and persisting dose-related effects (Griffiths 2011)

Psilocybin occasioned mystical-type experiences: immediate and persisting dose-related effects
Griffiths, Roland R.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Richards, William A.; Richards, Brian R.; McCann, Una D.; Jesse, Robert.
2011; 218(4):649–65. [PubMed: 21674151]

Psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience in combination with
meditation (Griffiths 2018)

Psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience in combination with
meditation and other spiritual practices produces enduring
positive changes in psychological functioning and in trait
measures of prosocial attitudes and behaviors

Griffiths, R. R., Johnson, M. W., Richards, W. A., Richards, B. D.,
Jesse, R., MacLean, K. A., & Klinedinst, M. A.
Journal of Psychopharmacology,
32(1), 49–69.
pubreader: 3-column? 🤨


SOCQ/MEQ30 (MacLean 2012)

Note: Later = Smaller, thus lower down on this page.
43 items = ~1963.
30 items = ~2012.

MacLean, K. A., Leoutsakos, J.-M. S., Johnson, M. W. & Griffiths, R. R.
Factor Analysis of the Mystical Experience Questionnaire: A Study of Experiences Occasioned by the Hallucinogen Psilocybin. 
J. Sci. Study Relig. 51, 721–737 (2012).


SOCQ – “States of Consciousness Questionnaire”

Validation of MEQ30 (Griffiths 2015)

Validation of the revised Mystical Experience Questionnaire in experimental sessions with psilocybin
Frederick Barrett, Mathew “No Buddha Statues” Johnson, Roland Griffiths
2015 – for PDF, click “FREE Full text PMC” button in upper right


SOCQ – “States of Consciousness Questionnaire”

CEQ (Griffiths 2016)

The Challenging Experience Questionnaire: Characterization of challenging experiences with psilocybin mushrooms
Frederick S Barrett, Matthew P Bradstreet,
Jeannie-Marie S Leoutsakos, Matthew W Johnson
and Roland R Griffiths, 2016

I have serious reservations about even listing this entry in a Questionnaires page.

The CEQ Isn’t a Real, Authentic, Legitimate, Safe, Usable, or Insight-Delivering Questionnaire

Caution, the CEQ isn’t a real questionnaire; it’s just a cross-questionnaire mockup exercise.

Griffiths’ team cannot be relied on, they are too positive (mystical experiences are always rainbows & unicorns) and too ordinary-state based in the selection of items for the CEQ’s Initial Item Pool and then deleting the 64 down to 24, willy-nilly in anti-scientific arbitrary way, as proved by the lack of any real OAV Angst/Dread items or 11-Factors high-level Unpleasant category items in the final 26 questions.

The extant CEQ needs to be scrapped, it’s an unscientific scheme to eliminate authentically psychedelic negative experiences, simply DELETING 18 of 21 of Dittrich’s 1994 Dread of Ego Dissolution effects questions/items, and creating for themselves a new, Grief category — conveniently sounding like the ordinary-state couch psychotherapy Grief counseling profession of services — and gathering more questions in their new Grief category than any other category (factor).

Strategy: Eliminate all the negative psychedelics-specific distinctive state-specific effects (Volition & Control challenges; the threat of catastrophic loss of control of thinking 😱🐉🚪💎) and put the spotlight on ordinary-state-based, state-generic Grief counseling instead. BUNK!


The Isolation factor has 3 versions of the same Isolation effect from 3 questionnaires.

They warn not to use their bunk Paranoia factor, because one of the two questions is about aggression, not paranoia.

There are about 7 dup questions (b/c of picking equivalent items from 3 questionnaires and wanting to pad-out their 6, no make it 7 factors) in the final set of 26 items, making hash out of the defense “We had to get rid of all of Dittrich’s Angst/Dread effects to streamline the questionnaire.”

Related Books

The Varieties of Religious Experience (James 1902)

Search Amazon:

The Varieties of Spiritual Experience (Yaden 2022)

The Varieties of Spiritual Experience: 21st Century Research and Perspectives
David Yaden & Andrew Newberg
September 1, 2022

My page section about the Harvard video:
Page title:
Psychedelics and the Future of Religion/ Transcendence and Transformation Initiative (Stang, Harvard)
Section heading:
Book: The Varieties of Spiritual Experience: 21st Century Research and Perspectives (Yaden & Newberg)

Mysticism and Philosophy (Stace 1960)

Mysticism and Philosophy
February 1, 1987 reprint
Walter Stace, Huston Smith (Foreword)
Orig. 1960

Search Amazon UK:

It is strange how this (out of print) book is treated as THE “scientific” foundation for the so-called “mystical” aspect of all of the entire psychedelic psychometrics science.

All these questionnaires stand or fall with this one book.

And if you ask too many questions, the mystical scientists fall back to James 1902.

And Huxley 1954 Doors of Perception and The Perennial Philosophy (1944).

Philosophy of Mysticism: Raids on the Ineffable (Jones 2017)

A 2017 followup book, for 1960 Stace: Mysticism and Philosophy:

Philosophy of Mysticism: Raids on the Ineffable
Richard Jones, 2017

I noted this book in a post/page about the article “Moving Past Mysticism”:
Amazon US:


The Perennial Philosophy (Huxley 1945)

Wiki says 1945 published. Amazon scan of Copyright page says Copyright 1944, 1945.

The Doors of Perception (Huxley 1954)

The correct date for The Doors of Perception is 1954.

The correct date for Heaven and Hell is 1956.

Heaven and Hell (Huxley 1956)

The Psychology of Religion: Theoretical Approaches (Spilka 1997)

The Psychology Of Religion: Theoretical Approaches
By Bernard Spilka, Daniel Mcintosh
ISBN 9780813329475
Published November 22, 1996 (Copyright Year 1997) by Routledge
296 Pages – Look Inside:

That’s probably the 1st Edition of the book that became The Psychology of Religion: An Empirical Approach, which is associated with the Hood lifetime mystical experience questionnaire. Amazon concurs in title of that webpage: says “1st Edition”.


The Psychology of Religion: An Empirical Approach (Hood 2018)

1st Edition:

The Psychology of Religion: An Empirical Approach (Fifth Edition)
Ralph W. Hood Jr., Peter C. Hill, Bernard Spilka

Important book re: Hood’s questionnaire techniques/science.

1st Edition: todo. the Hood lifetime (not single trip session) mystical experience questionnaire.

I posted about this book yesterday, ~Jan 17 2023: I unravelled a casual, garbled reference to this book, that conflated editors and years and editions and publishers. I found a Google scholar page that lists many editions of this book.
Find “Philosophy of Mysticism” in page:
The Theory of Psychedelic Eternalism Provides a Scientific Basis for Mystic-State Experiencing, Superseding the “Mysticism, Meditation, & Psychotherapy” Framework

Interesting: I posted on Dec. 1, 2013 in the Egodeath Yahoo Group (strangely, the posting before my big “tree vs. snake” breakthrough announcement), my Amazon review of Roberts’ book, mentions Hood’s book which says Merkur says mystics used entheogens.

The Psychedelic Future of the Mind: How Entheogens Are Enhancing Cognition, Boosting Intelligence, and Raising Values
Thomas Roberts
January 2013

About Roberts’ book, my review says:

“This book — its authors — reify habitually the uncritically adopted unspoken Prohibitionist-compliant dogma, a hazy, incoherent dogma, that scholars understand how Christian mystics throughout history accessed the intense mystic altered state, and we know that they accessed it through meditation, and we know they didn’t access it through drugs.

“It is unthinkable and unwriteable by Walsh and Roberts — mis-leaders of reform — to consider the question I pose: to what extent were visionary plants used by Christians throughout history?

“Roberts contradicts the evidence he has collected: he cites the book The Psychology of Religion by Hood et al The Psychology of Religion: An Empirical Approach (, which states that Dan Merkur has shown in his book The Psychedelic Sacrament: Manna, Meditation, and Mystical Experience ( that Jewish mystics used visionary plants.” – Cybermonk, Amazon book review

Sacred Knowledge: Psychedelics and Religious Experiences (Richards 2016)

Sacred Knowledge: Psychedelics and Religious Experiences
William Richards
2016 per Copyright page. Amazon shows Dec. 2015, I ordered it Oct 29, 2015.

Richards started with Pahnke, helped Pahnke refine the late-1960s MEQ Mystical Experience Questionnaire, is part of the Griffiths/Hopkins/Johnson group.

Philosophy of Psychedelics (Letheby 2021)

Philosophy of Psychedelics (International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry)
Chris Letheby
October 25, 2021 –


“Recent clinical trials show that psychedelics such as LSD and psilocybin can be given safely in controlled conditions, and can cause lasting psychological benefits with one or two administrations.

“Supervised psychedelic sessions can reduce symptoms of anxiety, depression, and addiction, and improve well-being in healthy volunteers, for months or even years.

“But these benefits seem to be mediated by “mystical” experiences of cosmic consciousness, which prompts a philosophical concern:

“do psychedelics cause psychological benefits by inducing false or implausible beliefs about the metaphysical nature of reality?

“This book is the first scholarly monograph in English devoted to the philosophical analysis of psychedelic drugs.

“Its central focus is the apparent conflict between the growing use of psychedelics in psychiatry and the philosophical worldview of naturalism.

“Within the book, Letheby integrates empirical evidence and philosophical considerations in the service of a simple conclusion:

“this “Comforting Delusion Objection” to psychedelic therapy fails.

“While exotic metaphysical ideas do sometimes come up, they are not, on closer inspection, the central driver of change in psychedelic therapy.

“Psychedelics lead to lasting benefits by altering the sense of self, and changing how people relate to their own minds and lives-not by changing their beliefs about the ultimate nature of reality.

“The upshot is that a traditional conception of psychedelics as agents of insight and spirituality can be reconciled with naturalism (the philosophical position that the natural world is all there is).

“Controlled psychedelic use can lead to genuine forms of knowledge gain and spiritual growth-even if no Cosmic Consciousness or transcendent divine Reality exists.

“Philosophy of Psychedelics is an indispensable guide to the literature for researchers already engaged in the field of psychedelic psychiatry, and for researchers-especially philosophers-who want to become acquainted with this increasingly topical field.”

Philosophy and Psychedelics: Frameworks for Exceptional Experience (Hauskeller 2022)

Philosophy and Psychedelics: Frameworks for Exceptional Experience
July 14, 2022 / March 23, 2023
by Christine Hauskeller (Editor), Peter Sjöstedt-Hughes (Editor)


What do psychedelics reveal about consciousness?

What impact have psychedelics had on philosophy?

“In this rapidly growing area of study, this is the first volume to explore the philosophy of psychedelic experience, from a range of interdisciplinary and cross-cultural perspectives.

“In doing so, Philosophy and Psychedelics reveals just why the place of psychedelics in our societies should not be left to medical sciences alone, as psychedelic experience opens up new perspectives on fundamental philosophical questions relating to human experience, ethics, and the metaphysics of mind.

“Mapping a range of philosophical responses to the surge in studies into psychedelic drugs in the cognitive sciences, this go-to volume examines topics including

  • psychedelics and the role of governance;
  • psychedelics and mysticism;
  • what psychedelics can tell us about dyadic thankfulness; and
  • psychedelics as ways to gain new knowledge.

“Written by leading international scholars, the essays cover Western and non-Western traditions, from analytic philosophy to Zen Buddhism, and discuss a variety of hallucinogens, such as LSD, MDMA, and Ayahuasca, in order to build a much-needed bridge between the rapidly growing scientific research and the philosophy behind psychedelic experience.”

The Psychedelic Renaissance (Sessa 2012/2017)

The Psychedelic Renaissance: Reassessing the Role of Psychedelic Drugs in 21st Century Psychiatry and Society
Second Edition
2017 (2012)
Ben Sessa

Motivation for this page

I need a single page I can point to when I discuss questionnaires and articles about them.

Right now, references are scattered across my various pages/posts about psychedelic psychometrics questionnaires.

References from APZ page

heading retired. I copied Ref section from my APZ page to here.

References from My OAV page

heading retired. I copied Ref section from my OAV page to here.

References from My 11-Factors page

heading retired. I copied Ref section from my OAV page to here. 1 item only.


  • Link from each questionnaire page (eg References section) to here.
  • In each entry/section here, link to my corresponding questionnaire page.
  • Print out Griffiths 2006.
  • Print out Griffiths 2008.

done? Copy from the References sections at the bottom of my pages about psychedelic psychometrics questionnaires to here. Done, I think. Find any specific stragglers as needed.

done: Make a heading for each article, including the year.

todo: Sort headings (articles) by date.


Author: egodeaththeory

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